Introgression Lines Carrying Oryza rufipogon Chromosome Segments in Japonica Rice Yeo-Tae Yun1, Chong-Tae Chung1, Young-Ju Lee1, Han-Jung Na1, Jae-Chul Lee1, Sun-Gye Lee1, Kwang-Won Lee1, Young-Hwan Yoon1, Ju-Won Kang2,4, Hyun-Sook Lee2, Jong-Yeol Lee3 and Sang-Nag Ahn2* Abstract Agronomia Mesoamericana, 9(1):10-17. … Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 30: 929 – 939. Weed management in Rice. Symbol Key - ORRU. Genes from wild rice improve yield. The present system and recent changes in land use in Sathing Phra district in southern Thailand. The major characteristics of landraces are (i) ... Oryza sativa, originated from Oryza rufipogon in Asia, and Oryza glaberrima, originated from Oryza barthii in Africa. Hybridization between new world diploids and AA genome species from Asia and Australia. Origin, dispersal, cultivation and variation of rice. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm. The Hindu/Vanishing Wetlands- 09 March 2005, Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T176902A61524992.en, "Genomes of 13 domesticated and wild rice relatives highlight genetic conservation, turnover and innovation across the genus Oryza", http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=ORRU, http://www.nappo.org/PRA-sheets/Oryzarufipogon.pdf, http://www.hindu.com/2005/03/09/stories/2005030903421000.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oryza_rufipogon&oldid=953330984, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 April 2020, at 21:22. In situ conservation of Oryza rufipogon. 331:26-32. rufipogon … de Wet, Oryza sativa var. Of 195 plantlets derived from anther culture, 85% were 2n with normal fertility. Taxonomic status of Oryza glumaepatula Steud. Oryza rufipogon. Introduction. Keisers J T, 1984. ©Julia Scher/Federal Noxious Weeds Disseminules/USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US. Resistance of wild rice collected from Guangxi to bacterial blight. RAPD variation within and between natural populations of the wild rice Oryza rufipogon from China and Brazil. Crop Genetic Resources, No. Kairudin, NMK and Abdullah, MZ (2012) Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci for agronomic traits in advanced backcross breeding lines derived from Oryza rufipogon × Oryza sativa cultivar MR219. Acta Agron Sin ›› 2006, Vol. The problem of weeds in rice. International Rice Research Notes 24(2):41. 6-8. Roy (1921) recommended the use of purple-leaved cultivars, and land preparation (stale seedbed and puddling) for the control of red rice. To understand the genetic characteristics of the traits related to differentiation between cultivated rice and its wild progenitor, genetic factors controlling domestication- and yield-related traits were identified using a BC 3 F 2 population derived from an accession of common wild rice (donor, Oryza rufipogon Griff.) JARQ (Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly), 17(3):211-214. Analysis of the characteristics of Oryza rufipogon Griff. Oryza nivara is the closest annual wild progenitor of O. sativa subspecies indica distributed in South and Southeast Asia. The field was flooded from the 3.5 leaf stage of rice to check emergence of wild rice and other weeds. Crop Genetic Resources For Today And Tomorrow. Seeds do not survive ingestion by waterfowl (California Department of Food and Agriculture, 2001). Increases in plant height make rice plants more susceptible to lodging, … Differential susceptibility of rice (Oryza sativa), wild rice (Oryza species), and weedy wild rice (Oryza species) to three herbicides. Current status of rice improvement through use of wild rice species at CIAT. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 45(3):205-214; 12 ref. EPPO Global database. FNW taxon. Biotechnology in Agriculture No. Chemical weed control in irrigated rice. 11. Neldner V J, Fensham R J, Clarkson J R, Stanton J P, 1997. Weed Technology, 11(4):662-666; 17 ref. URL: http://delta-intkey.com [Accessed 04 September 2013]. 107. Plant Molecular Biology, 35:25-34. 425 pp. A loss of seed shattering is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes selected for during rice domestication. Journal of Hill Research 10(2):188-189. Weeds reported in Rice in South and Southeast Asia. Even if the weeds are not removed they will be much less competitive and produce less seed than they would in a direct-sown crop. , Oryza rufipogon is an invasive species and listed as a 'noxious weed' by the United States, and also listed as a noxious weed in Alabama, California, Florida, Massachusetts, Minnesota, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, and Vermont. 6. & Roehr. Key to species and their enumeration. Oryza: Taxonomy navigation › Oryzinae All lower taxonomy nodes (85) Common name i-Synonym i-Other names i ›Oryza L., 1753 ›Porteresia: Rank i: GENUS: Lineage i › … Description, distribution and conservation status. Bulletin No. Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp. Control of wild rice in rice. During the years in which the alternate crop is grown, cultivation and herbicide treatments should be used to control red rice thoroughly, and provide a clean bed in which to sow rice in the third or fourth year of the rotation. rufipogon (Griff.) Langevin SA; Clay K; Grace JB, 1990. rufipogon segment near qGCR9 were compared to Hwaseong. Wild Oryza species included 25 O. rufipogon, two Oryza barthii, two Oryza meridionalis, and five Oryza officinalis; the first three are AA genome species that could potentially hybridize with cultivated and/or weedy rice in nature. Interpretation Oryza rufipogon. and Indonesian red rice. He recommended growing the white-stemmed cultivar Mugad for 2 years and weeding out all the red-stemmed plants and then in the succeeding 2 years growing the red-stemmed cv. Advances in Agronomy, 35:37-91. Weeds of California seed rice. Variation and inheritance of seed shedding in weedy rice. Technical Bulletin, Tropical Agriculture Research Centre, No 7. I. NAPPO - PRA / Grains Panel Pest Fact Sheet - Oryza rufipogon Griff. Second G, 1985. Control of red rice (Oryza sativa) in water-seeded rice (O. sativa). Klosterboer AD, 1979. Screening of wild Oryza species against bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. RFLP relationships of A-genome species in the genus Oryza. In: The Botanical Magazine, Tokyo, 76 (899) 165-173. Angeles ER; Cabunagan RC; Tiongco ER; Azzam O; Teng PS; Khush GS; Chancellor TCB, 1998. Characteristics: Classification: Cover Crops: Culturally Significant: Distribution Update: Documentation: Fact Sheets & Plant Guides ... Oryza rufipogon Griffiths – brownbeard rice Subordinate Taxa. Moody K, 1989. Indonesia: BIOTROP, 19-24. Molecular Biology and Evolution. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University. Tseng ST; Oster JJ, 1994. Wild edible plants of Chandrapur district, Maharashtra, India. Westbrooks RG, Eplee RM, 1988. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Transplanting rice has multiple benefits; germination of the weed should be considerably reduced, and those that do germinate can still be removed by weeding. Seeds were germinated for each sampled accession in the Hidaka T; Yaklai V; Kadkao S, 1983. Oryza rufipogon, a wild progenitor of rice, occurs in discrete wetland populations over a wide latitudinal range in China. The conservation and use of rice genetic resources. Rice should be rotated with other grain or legume crops such as sorghum or soyabean. There are no pictures available for this datasheet, California Department of Food and Agriculture, 2001, http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Whiteville, USA: USDA-APHIS, 316-321. ©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US. , A paper on conservation genetics of wild rice in the journal Molecular Ecology has this to say about O. rufipogon: "This is the most agriculturally important but seriously endangered wild rice species. Hino T; Wathanakul L; Nabheerong N; Surin P; Chaimongkul U; Disthaporn S; Putta M; Kerdchokchai D; Surin A, 1974. 17 (4), 486-9. This taxa is now generally known as O. glumaepatula , although this name was first used to describe a cultivated rice from Suriname. has a simi-lar AA genome to cultivated rice, and is … Neldner VJ; Fensham RJ; Clarkson JR; Stanton JP, 1997. Hand weeding is still practised, mainly in developing nations, but with hand weeding, workers are faced with the dilemma of distinguishing between weeds and the crop. Baksha MM; Huq AM; Khan MS, 1979. USA. Supplementary Volume. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. International Rice Research Notes, 21(2-3):13-14. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Moody K, 1994. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Glufosinate-resistant, BAR-transformed rice (Oryza sativa) and red rice (Oryza sativa) response to glufosinate alone and in mixtures. The natural grasslands of Cape York Peninsula, Australia. 2006. 24 (2), 219-227. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute. Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais. Manila, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute. Some wild rice traits, such as freely shattering seed and persistent seed dormancy, would Genetique Selection Evolution, 17(1):89-114. Takeoka T, 1963. … Several species complexes. Oryza glumaepatula (synonym Latin American O. rufipogon, AA genome) AA-genome wild rice is found in various parts of Latin America from 23 °N in Cuba to 23 °S in Brazil. 442 pp. 2. – longstamen rice P: Species Oryza punctata Kotzchy ex Steud. 32 (2), 60-64. https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=SR19910081241. Oryza rufipogon. To identify trait-improving quantitative trait loci (QTL) alleles from exotic species, an accession of Oryza rufipogon , a relative of cultivated rice, was chosen on the basis of a … Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. The closer the weed resembles the crop, the more likely it is to be overlooked during weeding. 32 ›› Issue (12): 1913-1916. Early season cultivation and harrowing stimulate germination of O. rufipogon and may allow the mechanical destruction of several flushes of wild rice growth before rice or rotational crops are planted.Chemical Control Cai HW; Wang XK; Morishima H, 1996. Journal of China Agricultural University, 2(5):65-71. The following practices are also effective: plant spacing, where crop competition can be used to reduce weed growth; high seedling rate of cultivated rice to reduce tillering of wild rice; and burning straw after harvest to kill wild rice seeds. O. rufipogon sheds most of its seedsbefore the har… Perhaps the worst weeds of rice are wild species of rice that shed their seeds before the crop is ripe and have seeds with dormancy (Cook, 1990). Pest management in rice (conference held by the Society of Chemical Industry, London, UK, 4-7 June 1990)., 314-327. Frontiers in Plant Science. Texas Agricultural Progress, 25(1):3-4. International Rice Research Notes 22(1):4-5. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. 2-4. Exploration And Survey In Rice. All were susceptible to simetryn regardless of origin. Calder GJ; Lemcke B; Ford BD; Cameron AG, 1999. Hore DK, 1997. A seedbed was finely prepared by disking and tine harrowing about 1 month before sowing. [Method] Thirty-six SSR loci distributed on the twelve chromosomes of rice were used to study the genetic … Control of red rice (Oryza sativa) in water-seeded rice (O. sativa). nudum, Oryza sativa subsp. Chen WM, 2001. Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Oryza fatua J. Koenig ex Trin., nom. Weed flora of rice in Himachal Pradesh and their management. Gonag: a weed in drilled paddy. To characterize the effect of the O. rufipogon locus harboring qGCR9, four lines with a single but different O. rufipogon segment near qGCR9 were compared to Hwaseong. 13 (5), 1009-1024. Dongxiang wild rice, Oryza rufipogon Griff. oryzae. The perennial CWR, Oryza rufipogon Griff., known as the ancestor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa L.), is the most important germplasm for rice improvement ().The collected samples of this wild rice species have been extensively used by scientists and breeders from agricultural research stations and universities for … 3. Compar- Interspecific crosses Oryza rufipogon and Oryza longistaminata with Oryza Sativa (Bas-385 and F. Malakand) Abdul Waheed 1, Habib Ahmad 1, Fida M. Abassi 1, F.S.Hamid 2, A.H. Shah 1, Hamid Ali 1, Fayaz Ahmad 2, Naseer Ahmad 3 1D epa r tm nof G ic sH az U vers y Man h ( K P) ki . According to the North American Plant Protection Association, Taxonomic studies of Oryza. The Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan (Excluding Bambusae). (Controle quimico de plantas daninhas em arroz irrigado.). DOI:10.1016/S0006-3207(96)00162-0. When the wild rice seedlings reached the 3-4 leaf stage (95% of seeds in the 0-4 cm soil layer had germinated), a mixture of paraquat and oxadiazon was applied. Chemical control of O. rufipogon in rice is difficult because of the close genetic relationship between the weed and the crop. Federal noxious weeds in Florida. FAO Plant Production and Protection paper 120, 249-263. Genetic differentiation of nuclear DNA in common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Reddy B M, 2012. An advanced backcross population between an accession of Oryza rufipogon (IRGC 105491) and the U.S. cultivar Jefferson (Oryza sativa ssp. Gao LiZhi, 2004. Occurrence of the rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Wood-Mason) in wild rice in Thailand. 3 (1), 110-117. http://www.niscair.res.in. (Poales: Poaceae), has many excellent traits that are of interest to botanists and plant breeders. LI Tao 12,DING Zai-Song 1,GUAN Dong-Ming 3,CHEN Chuan-Yong 2,SUN Rui 2,ZHAO Ming 1* Wild Oryza species with 2n= 24 or 48 chromosomes and genome constitutions AA, BB, CC, BBCC, CCDD, EE, FF, GG, or HHJJ are impor-tant reservoirs of genes with potential for use in rice breeding . Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Three lines (O. rufipopgon ILs) having O. rufipogon segment between RM242 and RM245 in common showed higher glossiness of cooked rice than Hwaseong and the other line (Hwaseong IL), indicating that Previously, three seed-shattering loci, qSH1, sh4, and qSH3 w … Oryza rufipogon (AA genome type) is a wild rice, perennial, tufted, and scrambling grass with nodal tillering; plant height variable (1-5 m) depending on the depth of water; panicles open; spikelets usually 4.5-10.6 mm long and 1.6-3.5 mm wide with awns usually 4-10 cm long; anthers >3 mm reaching 7.4 mm long.. Chromosome number: 2n=2x=24 Oryza comprises ∼21 wild species composed of 10 different genome types (A–H, J, and K; Ge et al. A preliminary classification of the wild rice of C. P. & Berar. ID - 58214. Such programmes are recommended for rice in Asia and the Americas (Grist, 1986; Smith and Hill, 1990; Ampong-Nyarko and De Datta, 1991; Moody, 1994).Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods Both annual and perennial forms of wild rice are found in Australia. 81 (1/2), 121-136. Weeds reported in rice in South and Southeast Asia. About Oryza rufipogon. DOI:10.1023/A:1015740331079, Ge Song, Oliveira G C X, Schaal B A, Gao LiZhi, Hong DeYuan, 1999. Oryza longistaminata occurring in Africa is closely related to the West African Oryza barthii sometimes in sympatric communities, which has a tall (~ 2 m), erect, rhizomatous phenotype and is outcrossing. 29 (6), 663-666. Hall D, 1990. Federal noxious weeds in Florida. Pesticide Science, 7(4):403-416. Trebuil G; Thungwa S; Patamadit-Trebuil I, 1983. Naredo MEB; Juliano AB; Lu BaoRong; Jackson MT, 1998. EPPO, 2020. Weeds of Indonesia. PQR database. International Rice Research Newsletter, 17(6):25, EPPO, 2014. Biological Conservation. According to the North American Plant Protection Association, O. rufipogon blends in with cultivated O. sativa so well that it cannot be detected. Agricultural Journal of India, 16:365-380. Wild Rice Taxonomy 2 O. meridionalis 24 AA O. nivara 24 AA O. rufipogon 24 AA O. glaberrima 24 AA O. sativa 24 AA Key to wild species of rice (Oryza spp.) Introduction Lu BR, 1999. Hyakutake H; Shimizu K; Takahashi N, 1990. FNW taxon. Reimers PJ; Consignades B; Nelson RJ, 1993. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 24 (3), 875-888. In: International Biological Programme, 2 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society. Crop Genetic Resources For Today And Tomorrow. The plants and animals than nourish man. Alawa Ethnobotany, Aboriginal Plant Use from Minyerri, Northern Australia, Northern Territory Botanical Bulletin No. TABLE 3 AMOVA summary of Indian Oryza rufipogon species complex wild rice populations from nine different agro-climatic zones of India based on HvSSR markers. Rojas M; Agnero R, 1996. has long been believed to be the direct ancestor of Asian culti - vated rice. A total of 108 rice strains (68 of O. sativa, 35 of O. rufipogon, and 5 of other rice species with the AA genome; see Table 1) were examined for the presence or absence of the 26 new p-SINE1 members, as well as the 25 previously isolated p-SINE1 members, by PCR … Nature (London), 384(6606):223-224; 10 ref. For effective control of wild rice, Thakur (1969) recommended the growing of BR 11 or BR 12, which are purple cultivars. Recommendations for control of O. rufipogon in the developing world are detailed in Moody (1994) and those for the Americas are reviewed by Smith and Hill (1990). Oryza rufipogon (wild or brownbeard rice); caryopses, lateral view. Chen (2001) used the following steps to obtain 96% control of O. rufipogon. Oryza rufipogon (wild or brownbeard rice); flowering habit. Jakarta, Indonesia: Balai Pustaka, 716 pp. is the putative progenitor of Asian cultivated rice, one of the most important food crops in the world.It is also an important source of germplasm for rice improvement 1 – 3.Ding Ying found wild rice (O. rufipogon) in Guangzhou in 1926, and the wild × cultivated cross Zhong Shan … Members of the genus grow as tall, wetland grasses, growing to 1–2 m tall; the genus includes both annual and perennial species. Introduction. Weed Science. Heredity. Discovery of Oryza rufipogon (Poaceae: Oryzeae), new to the United States, with its implications. Morphological traits related to the domestication process and/or weedy characteristics, including plant height, shattering, tiller type and awns, were found clustered on chromosomes 1 and 4. Handbook for weed control in rice. Tropical Agriculture Series. 7 (1), 9-19. (1990) reported morphological convergence between cultivated and weedy O. sativa, with hybrids demonstrated to be more vigorous than pure weeds. Farmer and Parliament 20:9, 25-27. Exploration And Survey In Rice. Studies on yellow orange leaf virus disease in Thailand. 26-32. Species Oryza barthii A. Chev. control of red rice growth in irrigation ditches, and the use of clean cultivation equipment are recommended. Calcutta, India: The Agricultural Society of India, 179-183. Morishima H; Shimamoto Y; Sato T; Yamagishi H; Sato YI, 1991. Rice. 2pp. Chang TT, 1975. Top of page O. rufipogon is a vigorous, strongly competitive plant, which is difficult to eradicate ( Lazarides, 1980 ). USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Family - … – African rice P: Species Oryza latifolia Desv. USDA Plant Characteristics. In the 10 years before 1932, 28% of California rice seed samples had O. rufipogon present at an average of 95 seeds/kg, the highest count being 1060/kg (Bellue, 1932).Mechanical Cultivation O. rufipogon seeds that are buried will not germinate in flooded or water-saturated soil, but under these conditions the plants will propagate by stem cuttings or stem bases. Parker C; Dean ML, 1976. Infestations of wild rice reduce yield and lower the grade of cultivated rice. This plant has no children Legal Status. 5. Oryza rufipogon (wild or brownbeard rice); disseminules, lateral view. III. , Oryza glumaepatula is a related species according to molecular biology approaches. rufipogon. 7 (4), 403-416. Cleanliness of cultivation Scientific American, 235(3):89-97. International Biological Programme, Vol 2. PDF | On Jul 1, 2014, Anil Kumar Singh and others published Characterization and evaluation of Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate In crop rotation, rice may be rotated with other crops in alternate seasons and an appropriate herbicide can be used to destroy weedy rice seedlings in these crops. Moody K, 1989. Common Name - brownbeard rice. Pang HH, 1992. Family - Poaceae. Longman. Weed control in rice. However, most rice varieties, especially widely grown indica varieties and hybrids, are sensitive to cold stress. logical characteristics . There is no single technique that will eliminate the problem. Allozyme variation and conservation genetics of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) The South American wild species Oryza glumaepatula, although similar to O. rufipogon, has not been domesticated (Figure 1). Rice Genetics Newsletter, 6:72-73. Lorenzi H, 1982. Registration of 87-Y-550, a rice germplasm line resistant to stem rot disease. Asian common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. California Department of Agriculture Bulletin 21:290-296. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2540.1999.00516.x. Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) is the putative ancestor of the Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa). Gramineae Part II. Oryza rufipogon. Integrated weed control systems, involving the use of certified seed (or good quality weed-free seed), good land preparation, the use of stale seedbeds to encourage weed germination before seeding, careful crop and water management, herbicides and crop rotation are needed. Wirjiharda S; Susilo H, 1979. A new approach to chemical control of wild and red rice is the use of herbicide-tolerant crop cultivars, which can be safely treated with otherwise non-selective herbicides such as glufosinate (Sankula et al., 1997). Lazarides M, 1980. III. (1987) recommend the use of certified seed, regular removal pre- and post-flowering and cultivation of purple-leaved cultivars continuously for 2 or 3 years for the control of wild rice. Post-emergence treatments include the use of fluazifop, quizalofop or sethoxydim, or directed sprays of paraquat to control red rice missed by pre-plant treatments. Weeds of East Pakistan. De Surinaamse Landbouw. logical characteristics . Federal noxious weed list (24 May 2006). ID - 58214. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02108.x, Gao LiZhi, Ge Song, Hong DeYuan, Lin RuShun, Tao GuoDa, Xu ZaiFu, 2002. Thus, while considerable differentiation between founder Oryza rufipogon populations has been reported and further divergence has likely occurred since domestication, the common origin and inter-specific comparability suggests that the transcriptional regulation and genome structure is similar . Wrigley (1969) commented on the difficulty of separating seeds of O. rufipogon from rice seeds by winnowing. Biological Conservation, 81(1/2):121-136; 53 ref. Abud J K, 1981. 157 (3), 657-665. Oryza nivara is considered as a distinct species 7,8,9,10 or as an ecotype of O. rufipogon 2,4,11 and its taxonomic status is not clear due to the inconsistent reports. DOI:10.1023/A:1023926802198, Zhu Q, Zheng X, Luo J, Gaut B S, Ge S, 2007. FNW taxon. When the alternate crop is grown, pre-plant soil incorporating herbicides such as metolachlor, either alone or tank mixed with trifluralin, pendimethalin, metribuzin or imazaquin, may be used. Paper to be presented at the 18th Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, 28 May-2 June 2001, Beijing, China. The rice seedlings are, therefore, easy to distinguish from the green wild rice seedlings. Mary River Hymenachne survey, March 1981. Although thiobencarb has been recommended for use on O. rufipogon in rice, it is recommended that the crop seed be treated with a protectant or antidote, such as NA (1,8-naphthalic anhydride), as a safeguard (Wirjarhardja and Susilo, 1979; Smith and Hill, 1990).
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