Finally, I want to focus on the proposition "God is love." First, there can be no separate, independent existence in either direction, and second, the relation between them is an entirely impersonal necessity void of the purpose or will that is essential to theistic (and polytheistic) transcendence. In Kierkegaard’s view, no political party or ideology can be trusted as the authoritative interpreter and agent of this ethical norm. 2007. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Translated by Howard V. Hong and Edna H. Hong. Of course they did not initiate the conversation to which they are major contributors, nor did they bring it to a conclusion. of Klaus Nürnbergerâs doctrine of God, with special reference to transcendence and immanence. (p. 115) To say that God is immanent is to say either that God is not transcendent (pantheism) or that God is not only transcendent (theism). Plato's phrase for such an unincreasable, unsurpassable value was "absolute beauty." Whitehead's theory of prehension (or "feeling of feeling"), applied to God and all creatures, makes God the universally prehending and universally prehended subject, feeling all and felt by all. Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments, Vol. From Kierkegaard’s perspective, the practice of Christianity in his country was all too Hegelian, even amongst those who knew virtually nothing about Hegel. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Translated by A. V. Miller. Hegel’s God. Immanence affirms, while transcendence denies that God is contained within the world, and thus within the limits of human reason, or within the norms and resources of human society and culture. This is what Luther and Calvin call the ‘inner witness of the Holy Spirit’, the act by which God enables us to recognize revealed truth as the truth. Plato is not relative to us, but that is Plato's total ignorance of us; we constitute nothing of Plato's being, whereas, by his knowledge of and hence relativity to them, Parmenides and many others whom he did know contributed much to his wonderfully comprehensive awareness. But, once the truth is presented to him, he is able to recognize it as the truth without relying on the authority of Socrates. Brandewie, Ernest. immanence as philosophy, as it were â but thereby, also, immanence as the measure and instrument of the concepts philosophy forges in relation to, but also against, other forms of thinking, with their preference for transcendence. Works of Love. 2014. It is in his account of ethical life that Hegel writes, ‘Whatever happens, every individual is a child of his time; so philosophy too is its own time apprehended in thoughts. It is the work of a purposeful agent, who can eventually be described not merely as powerful but also as just, or merciful, or loving. The opposite extreme is to say, as Karl Barth once did (he later partly rescinded the statement), that God is "wholly other" than ourselves. Albany, 1995. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Find this resource: Westphal, Merold. In his early theological writings, Hegel practises the first of these options, rejecting outright the theistic conception of a personal God who as Creator, Lawgiver, Judge, and Redeemer transcends the worlds of nature and history. To appreciate adequately the strength of the worldwide effort to find something greater and better, or more real, than love at its best, we need to relate the issue to the problem of anthropomorphism. Translated by Howard V. Hong and Edna H. Hong. If our thoughts do not influence our behavior, then we know nothing of any influence of mind or spirit on the physical world. The Christian God ‘is a Being altogether alien to man’ and ‘human nature is absolutely severed from the divine’ (1971a, 176). To assume that the philosopher (whom Kierkegaard insists is not quite the same as Philosophy) occupies ‘the view from nowhere’, operating at some neutral standpoint from which the form of philosophy can be seen to be superior to that of religion, is simply to beg the question. See more. The relation of mind to body in human (and other) animals is the relation of mind to physical reality, to "matter," that we most directly and surely know. This is Objective Spirit, the network of practices and institutions that make up our life together. By far the most important responses (reactions) to Hegel after his death in 1831 were those of Marx and Kierkegaard, who burst onto the literary scene in 1843. Hegel’s Philosophy of Mind. This theme is the opposing conflicts of transcendent and immanent thought. If no form of theism escapes difficulties, puzzles it cannot solve, questions to which it finds no convincing answer, this is perhaps to be expected. ), cherish the creatures? This pantheism of the human spirit is already present in the early theological writings. ‘The Tübingen Essay of 1793’. It is less obvious that immanence is a value term, but ubiquity, "being everywhere," comes closer to expressing a unique property. (p. 112) As God is supreme freedom, ordinary singular beings are instances of less than supreme freedom, not of total lack of freedom. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.Find this resource: Merold Westphal is the Distinguished Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at Fordham University; Adjunct Professor at Australian Catholic University; and Guest Professor at Wuhan University, China. First, the difference between particularity and universality is theologically loaded. The sacrifice or execution is a subordination of the family’s interest to the interests of the larger society, the state, if you will. Translated by Norman Kemp Smith. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. The rhetoric of his hostility to biblical Judaism and Christianity is positively Nietzschean; both are slave religions, precisely due to the ontological, epistemic, and ethical/religious transcendence of God. Supreme freedom would have nothing to do were there not also less exalted forms of freedom. The difference can be thought in Aristotelian terms as that between the actualizing form of a thing (entelecheia) and the thing given its being by the presence of that form in it. This doctrine is too paradoxical to be defended apart from revelation. "Transcendence and Immanence No one in the West knew how to conceive mind, or awareness, as a universal property of creatures until Leibniz, the true founder of realistic idealism, made his distinction between dynamic singulars and aggregates or groups of singulars. Third, in Hegelian usage the inadequacy of religious thought and language as mere representations is more specifically theological than is captured by a reference to sense perception. That is why the idea of human rights suggests that even if the other person is only another human, they embody something sacred and inviolable. Calling the views expressed therein Kierkegaard’s is not necessarily to attribute them to him personally but to note that he is the one who presents them to us for our consideration. As nouns the difference between immanence and transcendence is that immanence is the state of being immanent; inherency while transcendence is (countable) the act of surpassing usual limits. 1:18–2:16). The latter comes to resemble Kant’s, if only in a formal sense. Such calls to ethical transcendence have epistemic implications as well. immanence definition: 1. the state of being present as a natural and permanent part of something: 2. the state of beingâ¦. Immanence, Self-Experience, and Transcendence in Edmund Husserl, Edith Stein, and Karl Jaspers Dermot Moran Abstract. For religion is an ‘imperfect’, ‘incomplete’, ‘defective’, ‘not spiritual’, ‘not yet perfected’ form of knowledge (1977, 462–3, 472, 477). Animals are open to good changes—growth, enrichment of experience—but also to bad ones—decay, impoverishment. Polakola, Jolana. Immanence and Transcendence vs. Pantheism First, some definitions: Immanence: This isn't a misspelling of "imminence," though the two words are related. One route of entry into the issue is to ask whether Hegel was a pantheist, and if so, in what sense? The divine excellence requires immunity to negative change, to loss or degeneration; but does it require an incapacity for any and every kind of good change, every kind of increase in value? Thus, for example, Spinoza denies that ‘God’ acts from free will or with an end in view (1982, Prop. challenging and comforting content (Luther’s Law and Gospel). ]Find this resource: Kierkegaard, Søren. To admit that one has no idea of the answers is to imply that one has no idea of the question; for they are either self-answering or else confused. According to Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, second edition, unabridged, to transcend is to "ascend beyond, excel." Many philosophers and theologians have more or less consciously proceeded in this fashion, and two of these, Plato and Whitehead, have been especially successful (at least according to some scholars strongly influenced by Whitehead). Thus Plotinus can distinguish the One from the many that emanate from it, just as we can distinguish the sun from the light and heat that radiate from it. Second, its source is the transcendent, personal God of theism, who is the agent of ‘the mighty acts of God’ in history (Wright 1952) and the performer of such speech acts as promises and commands, either directly to some individual or In our present age, history has reached the goal of its long journey as the unfolding of Reason. The slave boy in Plato’s Meno is the poster child for epistemic immanence. . The entire cosmos may be spatially finite; and even a beginningless past would be in a sense finite compared to the infinity of all that is conceivable. Transcendent Experiences: Phenomenology and Critique. (p. 118) immanence vs transcendence philosophy. Denying this radical dependence of God for very existence leaves quite open the possibility of a dependence for qualities not necessary to the divine existence. A transcendent is one who is beyond perception, independent of the universe, and wholly âotherâ when compared to us. Transcendence and Self-Transcendence: On God and the Soul. I choose as my lover and my friend (with or without success) only those who are in some way attractive to me. Abraham’s only justification is that God has told him to do what is condemned in his lifeworld. As distinct from any such general revelation, special revelation refers to acts of God, including speech acts, that occur at particular times and places and are thus given, at least in the first instance, to particular peoples or individuals. So Jaeschke can say that ‘eschatology is regarded [by Hegel] as the prime example of the failure of religion’ (1990, 185). Although each creature contains God and God contains each creature, the divine containing is unqualified, but the creaturely containing is more or less drastically qualified. In addition there are two kinds of dependence, only one of which is obviously a weakness, this being dependence for very existence and essential properties. He is an advocate of transcendence, the intangible metaphysics, which doesnât manifest in the action, but in the ideals, hence his philosophy â¦ Waco, TX: Baylor University Press.Find this resource: Westphal, Merold. Instead, an extremist strategy was followed, though with some inconsistency. Decision making, freedom, cannot be monopolized. It is a third form of this distinction that is most prominent in Hegel’s philosophy of religion. But even the highest form of religion is vassal to philosophy as its lord. Thus, for example, Spinoza continues to speak of God, whilst making clear that he means nature as understood by mechanistic physics. It brings into focus the heated, lengthy, and continuing theological controversy on the relationship…, The concept of eternity qualifies both discussion about God and about human destiny, although in different but analogous way. For each historically particular We is transcended by subsequent worlds of spirit. A transcendental point of view sees God as omnipotent, meaning all â¦ Fear and Trembling, probably Kierkegaard’s most read and discussed book, has three ‘problems’ at its heart. The famous negative way, the via negativa, must, after all, be supplemented by something positive, or we may end up worshiping a mere nothing or a mere verbal formula. The Stoics, who gave it its first exact formula, virtually revived the pre-Socratic cosmogonies. If there is any genuine freedom in the creatures, they will do things they might not have done. According to theism, immanence occurs in various degrees, more in the personal than the impersonal, in the good than in the evil.". 1933. In revelation, God’s voice cannot simply be equated with either my voice or our voice. The new physics (and even classical physics as interpreted by Clerk Maxwell, Reichenbach, Peirce, Whitehead, Sudarshan, and others) seems to harmonize better with this doctrine than did classical physics as it was usually interpreted by philosophers. Or, attributed to "realists," it is like "that of a self in its organism and its behavior." Thus Lessing’s Spinozism, as recalled by Jacobi, expresses itself this way: ‘The orthodox concepts of the Divinity are no longer for me; I cannot stomach them. Hegel’s name for this ground/norm is ‘ethical life’ (Sittlichkeit). God, however, is in principle superior to any animal. I have a different theory of dreams, and so had Bergson. Whitehead's wonderfully simple formula of "feeling of feeling" as a basic element in knowledge excludes any ground for Adler's dilemma. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. What has been calling itself Reason turns out to be the ideology of some particular society or culture. It is helpful to distinguish three sites at which the difference between immanence and transcendence shows up: cosmological, epistemic, and ethical/religious. This does not mean that it is impossible to distinguish ‘God’ from the world. This ‘beyond’ can also signify outside rather than inside in the sense of being irreducible to some dimension of human psychology or sociology. The three divine persons could love each other, even were there no creatures. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Anthropomorphism; Attributes of God; Pantheism and Panentheism; Sky; Supreme Beings; Theism. It engages natural science, theology and philosophy â¦ Hinduism posits Brahman as both transcendent and â¦ Immanence is an antonym of transcendence. Where it is claimed that God is revealed through the means of unaided human thought (as in the Five Ways of Thomas Aquinas), one can say that reason itself is a source of revelation. It refers to the laws and customs of a people. Neither has an a priori privilege. It involved two monks of the modern Bengali sect of Hinduism whose views harmonized with the idea of a deity both unchanging and yet in some respects changing. Can a fragment of reality comprehend the encompassing? The former found support in Hegel for conservative political and religious thought, whilst the latter both drew on Hegel and critiqued him in the direction of radical political and religious ideas. What thought or knowledge would be without feeling is not something that our experience makes transparently obvious. The third dimension of Hegel’s philosophy of immanence is the ethical/religious. The term is used of the "relation of God to the universe of physical things and finite spirits, as being … in essential nature, prior to it, exalted above it, and having real being apart from it." Early Theological Writings. In this I take Whitehead to have been mistaken. Immanence is a complex notion, not only because it is In Whitehead's view, God's "primordial nature" is simple (I would say even simpler than Whitehead makes it) but God's "consequent nature" is the most complex reality there is. We can call this a humanistic pantheism. Genuine power is not power over the powerless. Kierkegaard knows Hegel well enough to know that this would be a misreading. Of biblical monotheism he writes, ‘ “There is one God” is an assertion which stands on the summit of the [Jewish] state’s laws … one might say: What deeper truth is there for slaves than that they have a master?’ (1971a, 196). ISLAMIC THEOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY Lecture Outline-Introduction: Philosophy vs. Theology-Theology in the Qurâan Divine Transcendence vs. Immanence Divine Omnipotence vs. Human Responsibility-Kalam Debates in History Broad Groups Attributes of God Created vs. Uncreated Qurâan Predetermination vs. Free Will â¦ Simply put we may say that if Buddhahood is absolutely transcendent then we are cut off from it; and if Buddhahood is absolutely â¦ Transcendent (adjective) exceeding or surpassing usual limits especially in excellence. In religious experiencetranscendence is a state of being that has overcome the limitations of physical existâ¦ It is humanly difficult to admit this confusion. The alternative to the negative way is the doctrine of dual transcendence, according to which God in principle excels over others both in the sense that the divine nature is uniquely absolute and infinite and in the sense that it is uniquely relative and finite. But it is not abolished, only relativized (1983, 54, 56, 70–1). London: Macmillan.Find this resource: Kierkegaard, Søren. Following Kant, he distinguishes Understanding (Verstand) from Reason (Vernunft) as human thought equipped to deal only with the finite and conditioned on the one hand (the world of the Cave) or aspiring to deal with the infinite and unconditioned on the other (the light of the Sun outside the Cave). New York: Cambridge University Press.Find this resource: Wright, G. E. 1952. This entails the double hegemony described above, either rejecting or reinterpreting any practices not warranted by reason independently of revelation. In his dissertation he writes: "God is more than the absolute." We might say that in Hegel’s later thought this love diversifies into many forms of union at the level of spirit: love unites the members of a family; economic interest unites the participants of civil society; law unites the citizens of the state; and art, religion, and philosophy unite those who share a common culture. Philosophical knowledge of ‘God’ understands itself to be self-consciousness, not awareness of something or someone other than itself, but cognition of the believer’s own deepest and truest nature as divine. As universal, the ethical is not some abstract rule but some concrete community. The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world. By philosophy. It means the totality of finite things as informed or animated by a single power, life, or necessity. Immanence and Transcendence by Jack Kettler âShew me thy ways, O LORD; teach me thy paths.â (Psalm 25:4) In this study, we will look at the biblical teaching regarding Immanence and Transcendence. Whilst individual categories are the forms of finite things, The Idea is The Form of the world; and, since the world is both nature and human history, The Idea is the immanent but not transitive cause of both. Translated by T. M. Knox. But how to relate this timelike aspect of God to worldly time is a problem that overwhelms me with a sense of incompetence. We see a partial return to that position in Alfred North Whitehead's hypothesis of "cosmic epochs," each with its own natural laws. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. For a distinguished Jewish theologian's idea of God, see John C. Merkle's The Genesis of Faith: The Depth Theology of Abraham Joshua Heschel (New York, 1985); see also Heschel's God in Search of Man: A Philosophy of Judaism (New York, 1955). Where divine personal agency is in focus, polytheism stands closer to theism. Since Kant begins with a doctrine of radical evil and Hegel reinterprets the Fall as a good thing, the transition from animal immediacy to fully human thinking and cognition (1991, ¶24, A3; cf. Panentheism, (Gr. Phenomenology, understood as a philosophy of immanence, has had an ambiguous, uneasy relationship with transcendence, with the wholly other, with the numinous. In Hegel’s Development: Toward the Sunlight, 1770–1801. Most believers would pr…, The concept of providence expresses the idea that divine knowledge, will, and goodness are at work in the design and governance of the world. There cannot be the world (of nature and human history) without God, but there can be God without the world. 1995. Translated by T. M. Knox. 482–507. But Abraham has no such social/cultural justification. And in the second place, this is not what distinguishes Abraham from the three ‘tragic heroes’ who actually do kill their own son or daughter: Agamemnon, Jephthah, and Brutus. Indeed, God is not just other than the believer but ‘wholly other’. Translated by John W. Harvey. It is clear that transcendence is a value term expressing the unique excellence of God, because of which worship â utmost devotion or love â is the appropriate attitude toward the being so described. "Prior to the universe" seems to suggest a time when God was alone, with no cosmos of creatures to relate to—first a creator not actually creating, then one creating. The acorn is oak tree from the start, and not, say, a computer or a cauliflower; but it is only truly an oak tree when it has passed through all the stages of its development and arrived at its final goal. In a year—I think the very month or week—in which I was thinking and writing about how God in some senses is changing, yet also in other senses unchanging, a man from India delivered a sermon in the chapel of the University of Chicago, with which I was connected for twenty-seven years. Virtually identical with this dichotomy is the distinction between Reflection and Speculation. Religious language might remain, but only as emptied of its Whitehead held that having a universe, some universe or other, is, in principle, inherent in God's nature and not subject to divine choice. Bloomington, 2003. Kierkegaard’s Concept of Faith. Which Interpretation? To demand that God be, in every respect, immutable is to imply that there is no form of the capacity to change without which a being would be defective, or even a mere abstraction, not a concrete, actual being. The opposing idea to the idea of transcendences is immanence. All the forms of knowing that lead up to the Absolute Knowing that is speculative philosophy whilst falling short of it are ‘untrue knowledge’; but this is especially true of religious representations as distinct from philosophical concepts. With regard to transcendence and immanence, one extreme is gross anthropomorphism, taking God to be, as Matthew Arnold put it, "a magnified, nonnatural man." For the pantheist there is a symmetry in the reciprocity of God and the world. Kierkegaard is drawing on the Pauline distinction between the wisdom of the world and the foolishness of the gospel, preached ‘in fear and trembling’ relative to that wisdom (1 Cor. And if it be said that God, in deciding to have free creatures instead of unfree creatures, is indirectly responsible for evil, the reply is that for the new type of idealism "unfree creature" is an ill-formed formula. Sickness Unto Death. 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